Drug Resistance Genes Detection
RevoDx Carbapenem Resistance (blaNDM, blaKPC, blaIMP, blaOXA48, blaVIM) qPCR Kit
Carbapenem resistance is a major and an on-going public health problem globally. It occurs mainly among Gram-negative pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, and may be intrinsic or mediated by transferable carbapenemase-encoding genes.
Carbapenems are a powerful group of broad-spectrum beta-lactam (penicillin-related) antibiotics. In many cases, these are our last effective defense against infections caused by multi-resistant bacteria, such as some strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Resistance to carbapenems has emerged and is beginning to spread. New antibiotics need to be developed to counter bacteria with this type of resistance. Hospitals need good infection control to prevent their spread.
RevoDx Carbapenem resistance qPCR Kit is a real-time PCR test intended for the qualitative detection of blaNDM, blaKPC, blaIMP, blaOXA48 and blaVIM genes in single tube in which human RNase P is simultaneously detected.
RevoDx Methicillin (mecA/mecC) Resistance qPCR Kit
Methicillin is antibiotic formerly used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by organisms of the genus Staphylococcus. Methicillin is a semisynthetic derivative of penicillin. Methicillin resistance results from the production of an altered penicillin-binding protein known as PBP2a, which has decreased affinity for most β-lactam antibiotics. PBP2a is encoded by the gene mecA, which is carried on a mobile genetic element staphylococcal cassette chromosome type IV in CA-MRSA strains.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a group of Gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA is responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. It caused more than 100,000 deaths attributable to antimicrobial resistance in 2019.
RevoDx Methicillin (mecA/mecC) resistance qPCR Kit is a real-time PCR test intended for the qualitative detection of mecA and mecC genes in single tube in which human RNase P is simultaneously detected.
RevoDx Vancomycin (vanA/vanB) Resistance qPCR Kit
Antibiotic resistance occurs when the germs no longer respond to the antibiotics designed to kill them. If these germs develop resistance to vancomycin, an antibiotic that is used to treat some drug-resistant infections, they become vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Vancomycin is active only with respect to Gram-positive bacteria.
Vancomycin forms an intricate network of hydrogen bonds with the d-Ala-d-Ala region of Lipid II, interfering with the peptidoglycan layer maturation process. Resistance to vancomycin involves degradation of this natural precursor and its replacement with d-Ala-d-lac or d-Ala-d-Ser alternatives to which vancomycin has low affinity.
RevoDx Vancomycin (vanA/vanB) resistance qPCR Kit is a real-time PCR test intended for the qualitative detection of vanA gene and vanB gene in single tube in which human RNase P is simultaneously detected
RevoDx Colistin (mcr) Resistance qPCR Kit
Colistin is an antimicrobial agent of the polymyxin class. Due to the recent dissemination of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria around the world, colistin has been increasingly used as a last resort antimicrobial for treatment. It is a cationic polypeptide containing an acylated tripeptide chain at its N-terminus responsible for the toxicity of colistin. The mechanism of action relies on the interaction of the hydrophobic region of the fatty acid and phosphate groups of the lipid A of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This interaction displaces the divalent cations that naturally stabilize the outer bacterial membranes leading to leakage of cellular compounds and, ultimately, cell death. Due to its mechanism of action, colistin is highly effective against most Enterobacterales species and non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conversely, colistin is not active against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative cocci, and anaerobic bacteria.
RevoDx Colistin (mcr) resistance qPCR Kit is a real-time PCR test intended for the qualitative detection of Colistin resistance gene.
RevoDx Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) Genes (CTX-M, TEM, SHV) qPCR Kit
Beta-lactamases are enzymes that are major cause of bacterial resistance to the beta-lactam family of antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, and carbapenems. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond of beta-lactam ring and render the antibiotic inactive against its original cellular target, the cell wall transpeptidase. Extended-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics have widely been used for treatment of serious Gram-negative infections. Fast and adequate detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) is crucial for infection control measures and the choice of antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel ESBL assay using qPCR method to detect the most prevalent ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae: TEM, SHV and CTX-M.
RevoDx Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) Genes (CTX-M, TEM- SHV) qPCR Kit is a real-time PCR test intended for the qualitative detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases genes